Today after 50 years, with more than 15000 units built, this single engine bi-plane outperforms anything. The An2 offers the most aircraft for the money, has a safety record unmatched and puts the pilots back into a different world.
The prototype of this large biplane was designed to a specification of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of the USSR and made its first flight on 31 August 1947. It was powered by a 560 kW (7B0 hp) ASh-21 engine and was known as the SKh-1.
In 1948 design went into production in the USSR as the An-2, with a 736 kW (987 hp) ASh-62 engine. License rights were granted to China, where the first locally-produced An-2 was completed in December 1957. Since 1960, apart from a small Soviet-built quantity of a developed version known as the An-2M, the continued production of the An-2 has been the responsibility of the Polish PZL factory at Mielec, the origin license arrangement providing for two basic versions: the An-2T transport and An-2R agricultural version.
First Polish-built An-2 was flown on 23 October 1961. Since beginning An-2 production, PZL-Mielec has made numerous improvements to the airframe of the An-2R, resulting in an increase in TBO from 900 h in 1961 to 1500 h in 1970 and 2000 h in 1973, and service life to 15 900 h.
More than 90 per cent of aircraft deliveries were for export, mostly to the USSR. Since 1960 - 10 000 An-2s were built including 5500 of the agricultural version.
- An-2 Single-engine general-purpose biplane
- An-2P (passenger configuration with seating for 12 passengers),
- An-2PK (five seat executive), An-2P-Photo
- An-2R (agricultural; 1300 kg liquid or dry chemicals)
- An-2S (ambulance, 6 stretchers and medical attendants)
- An-2T (transport, 1500 kg cargo or 12 passengers)
- An-2TD (for parachute jumping), An-2TP (cargo-passenger)
- An-2M (on floats)
- T101 an Antonov 2 airframe derivat
The following details apply to the An-2P.
Wings: Unequal-span single-bay biplane. Wing section RIIS 14o/o (constant). Dihedral, both wings, approx. 2o48'. All-metal two-spar structure, fabric covered aft of front spar. Differential ailerons and full-span automatic leading-edge slats on upper wings, slotted trailing-edge flaps on both upper and lower wings. Flaps operated electrically, ailerons mechanically.
Fuselage: All-metal stressed-skin semi-monocoque structure. Crew of two on flight deck, with access via passenger cabin. Standard accommodation for 12 passengers, in four rows of three with center aisle. Two foldable seats for children in aisle between first and second rows. Toilet at rear cabin on starboard side.
Overhead racks for up to 160 kg of baggage, with space for coats and additional 40 kg of baggage between rear pair of seats and toilet. Emergency exit on starboard side at rear. Walls of cabin are lined with glass-wool mats to reduce internal noise level. Cabin heating and starboard windscreen de-icing by engine bleed air; port and center windscreen are electrically de-iced. Cabin ventilation by ram-air intakes. Air-conditioning system in An-2R.
Tail unit: Braced metal structure. Fabric-covered tailplane. Elevators and rudder operated mechanically. Electrically-operated trim tab in rudder and elevator.
Landing gear: Non-retractable split-axle type, with long- stroke oleo shock-absorbers. Main wheel tyres size 800 X 260 mm, pressure 230 kPa (2.3 kg/cm2). Pneumatic brakes on main units. Fully-castoring and self-centering tailwheel with electro-pneumatic lock. Interchangeable ski landing gear optionally.
Power plant: One 736 kW (9B7 hp) PZL ASz-62IR nine-cylinder radial air-cooled engine, driving an AW-2 four-blade variable pitch metal propeller. Six fuel tanks in upper wing, with total capacity of 1200 litters. Oil capacity 120 litters.
Systems: Compressed air cylinder, of 8 litters capacity, for pneumatic charging shock-absorber and operation of tailwheel lock at 5000 kPa (50 kg/cm2) pressure and operation of main-wheel brakes at 1000 kPa (10 kg/cm2). DC electrical system is supplied with basic 27 V power by an engine-driven generator and a storage battery. CO2 fire extinguishing system with automatic fire detector.
Equipment: Dual controls and blind-flying instrumentation standard. R-860. HF and R-842 VHF radio transceivers (or R56102A or Becker AR400 or Narco KX-170), RW-UM radio altimeter, ARK-9 radio compass, MRP-5EP marker beacon receiver, GB-1 gyro compass, GPK-48 gyroscopic direction indicator, and SPU-7 intercom.
- Wing span upper 18.18 m lower 14.24 m
- Length overall 12.71 m (tail up ); 12.40 m (tail down)
- Height overall 6.10 m (tail up); 4.00 m (tail down)
- Wheel track 3.45 m
- Propeller diameter 3.60 m; ; ground clearance 0.69 m
- Wing area 71.6 m2
- Cargo door height 1.55 m; width 1.39 m
- Cargo compartment length 4.10 m; Max height 1.60 m; Max width 1.80 m
Weights and loading:
- Empty 3450 kg; Max T-O weight 5500 kg; Useful load 2050 kg
- Maximum fuel weight 900 kg
- Max wing :loading 78.82 kg/m2 Max power' loading 5.5 kg/hp
Performance: (at 5250 kg)
- Max level speed at 1500 m 253 km/h
- Economy cruising speed 185 km/h
- Stalling speed 90 km/h
- Max rate of climb at S/L 3 m/s
- Service ceiling 4400 m
- T-O run.(grass) 170 m; T-O to 10.7 m (grass) 320 m
- Landing run (grass) 185 m; (hard runway) 170m
- Range at 1000 m with 700 kg payload 1370 km